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Key recommendations

Sprinklers require a reliable water supply. If water supply is interrupted, the assumed fire protection is greatly reduced.

Robustness in providing egress when building damage occurs, including the issues of transfer floors, stair spacing and locations, and stairwell enclosure impact resistance.

Develop design tools that predict heating conditions produced by a fire, temperature rise of structural components, and structural rezones.

Structural, fire protection, mechanical, architectural, blast, explosion, earthquake and wind engineering communities working together.

Study of occupant behaviour during evacuation to improve fire alarm and egress systems.

Full report: www. house. gov/science/ hot/wtc/wtcreport. htm

Structural frames need redundancy and/or robustness so alternative paths are available for transmitting loads when damage occurs.

Fireproofing needs to adhere under impact and fire conditions that deform steel members, so the coatings provide intended protection.

Connection performance under impact loads and fire loads needs to be analytically understood and quantified.