Dr Stollard, who oversaw the reform of the building standards system in Scotland in 2003, has worked in the safety industry for 25 years.
Over the past four years he has worked as the chief executive of the Scottish Building Standards Agency based in Livingston.
Dr Stollard said: "It is a tremendous honour to be taking up this post at a particularly interesting time in terms of health and safety issues.
"In 2006/7, 31 people were killed at work in Scotland and over 12,000 others were injured. This lays out a very clear challenge to those with duties under health and safety law and I look forward to working with all our stakeholders in Scotland to meet that challenge."